People who use their eyes to receive information about the world are called sighted people or “people who are sighted.”

Sighted people enjoy rich full lives, working, playing and raising
families. They run businesses, hold public office and teach your

People who are
sighted may walk or ride public transportation, but most choose to
travel long distances by operating their own motor vehicles. They have
gone through many hours of training to learn the “rules of the road” in
order to further their independence. Once that road to freedom has been
mastered, sighted people earn a legal classification and a “Driver’s
License” which allows them to operate a private vehicle safely and

people are accustomed to viewing the world in visual terms. This means
that in many situations, they will not be able to communicate orally and
may resort to pointing or other gesturing. Subtle facial expressions
may also be used to convey feelings in social situations. Calmly alert
the sighted person to his surroundings by speaking slowly, in a normal
tone of voice.

Questions directed at the sighted person help focus attention back on the verbal rather than visual communication.

At times, sighted people may need help finding things, especially when
operating a motor vehicle. Your advance knowledge of routes and
landmarks, particularly bumps in the road, turns and traffic lights,
will assist the “driver” in finding the way quickly and easily. Your
knowledge of building layouts can also assist the sighted person in
navigating complex shopping malls and offices. Sighted people tend to be
very proud and will not ask directly for assistance. Be gentle yet

The person who
is sighted relies exclusively on visual information. His or her
attention span fades quickly when reading long texts. Computer
information is presented in a “Graphical User Interface” or GUI.
Coordination of hands and eyes is often a problem for sighted people, so
the computer mouse, a handy device that slides along the desk top,
saves confusing keystrokes. With one button, the sighted person can move
around his or her computer screen quickly and easily. People who are
sighted are not accustomed to synthetic speech and may have great
difficulty understanding even the clearest synthesizer. Be patient and
prepared to explain many times how your computer equipment works.


Sighted people read through a system called “Print.” this is a series
of images drawn in a two dimensional plain. People who are sighted
generally have a poorly developed sense of touch. Braille is completely
foreign to the sighted person and he or she will take longer to learn
the code and be severely limited by his or her existing visual senses.
Sighted people cannot function well in low lighting conditions and are
generally completely helpless in total darkness. their homes are usually
very brightly lit at great expense, as are businesses that cater to the
sighted consumer.


People who are sighted do not want your charity. They want to live, work
and play along with you. The best thing you can do to support sighted
people in your community is to open yourself to their world. These
people are vital contributing members to society. Take a sighted person
to lunch today!

Be nice to them, Some of my best friends are sighted people.

Shortcut keys to send emotions using Skype messenger.


Text Description Emoticons
( angel ) Angel angel skye smiley
: @ Angry skype angry smiley
( hug ) Bear hug skype bear hug smiley
( beer ) Beer msn tongue out smiley
( blush ) Blushing skype blushing smiley
( bow ) Bowing bowing skype smiley
( punch ) Boxing boxing skype smiley
( u ) Broken heart broken heart smiley
( ^ ) Cake cake skype smiley
( call ) ”Call me” call me skype smiley
( cash ) Cash cash skype smiley
( mp ) Cell phone cell phone skype smiley
( clap ) Clapping clapping skype smiley
( coffee ) Coffee coffee skype smiley
8 – ) Cool cool skype smiley
; ( Crying crying skype smiley
( dance ) Dancing dancin skype smiley
( devil ) Devil devil Skyp smiley
( doh ) ”Doh” doh skype smiley
( d ) Cocktail drink skype smiley
| – ( ”Dull” dull skype smiley
( emo ) Emo secret msn smiley
] : ) Evil grin evil grin Skype smiley
( flex ) Flexing flexing skype smiley
( F ) Flower flower skype smiley
( chuckle ) Giggling giggling skype smiley
( handshake ) Handshake handshake skype smiley
( happy ) Happy happy skype smiley
( h ) Heart msn moon emoticon
( wave ) ”Hi” hi skype smiley
( inlove ) ”In love” in love skype smiley
( wasntme ) ”It wasn’t me” it wasn't me skype smiley
( envy ) Jealous jealous skype smiley
: * Kissing kissing skype smiley
: D Laughing laughing skype smiley
( e ) Mail mail skype smiley
( makeup ) Makeup makeup skype smiley
( mm ) Mmm mmmm skype smiley
( ~ ) Movie movie skype smiley
( music ) Music music skype smiley
8 – | Nerd nerdy skype smiley
( ninja ) Ninjay ninja skype smiley
( n ) Thumbs down no skype smiley
( nod ) Nodding nodding skype smiley
: x No speak no speak skype smiley
( party ) Party party skype smiley
( pi ) Pizza pizza skype smiley
( puke ) Sick sick skype smiley
( rain ) rain cloud raining skype smiley
( rofl ) Rofl rofl skype smiley
: ( Sad sad skype smiley
( shake ) ”No” no skype smiley
( skype ) Skype logo skype logo smiley
| – ) Sleepy sleepy skype smiley
: ) Smiling smiling skype smiley
( smirk ) Smirking smirking skype smiley
: – | Speechless speechless skype smiley
( * ) Star star skype smiley
( sun ) Sun sun skype smiley
( sweat ) Sweating sweating skype smiley
( talk ) Talking talking skype smiley
( think ) Thinking thinking skype smiley
( o ) Clock clock skype smiley
( yawn ) Yawning tired skype smiley
: p Tongue out tongue out skype smiley
( wait ) ”Wait” wait skype smiley
( whew ) ”Whew” whew skype smiley
; ) Winking winking skype smiley
: ^ ) Wondering wondering skype smiley
: S Worried worried skype smiley
( y ) Thumbs up thumbs up skype smiley

Welcome to Android Access, your portal to information on accessible Android apps and programs for the blind and visually impaired. We’re excited to be a part of the Android community, and look forward to your comments, feedback, and submissions. If you’re new to Android, check out our Getting Started page. Keep up to date with the latest reviews and news by following @AndroidAccess on Twitter.

For all those Apps you are looking for that are accessible for the blind, this is the page to go to: Android APPS

To add a braille display go to: APH braille display

 This braille display will also work with tablets such as the Nexus 7

More Android commands: http://tech.aph.org/rbd_doc.htm#Android

Android comes with a screen reader called TalkBack that works with synthesized speech. It is activated in Settings/Accessibility.
Once you get TalkBack going for speech, you need to download and install BrailleBack to get the braille feedback.

Have you accidently muted your volume, not knowing how to unmute it or change the volume….here are quick commands to get you moving

1: Run command–Windows key+r
2: type: sndvol
press enter
3: Press page up or up arrow. or vice versa
If that does not work; Press tab and follow with page up or arrow up or down
You are tabbing through the different controls in the mixer.

Reading stimulates white matter in kids–Get your kids reading
Posted By Abigail Klein Leichman On November 13, 2012 (12:00 am) In Education, Lifestyle

Complex changes in brain connections as children learn how to read have been newly revealed in a study initiated by Israeli brain science researcher, Michal Ben-Shachar.

Published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, the study focuses on “white matter” – a network of pale, myelin-sheathed connections that allows information transfer between distant parts of the brain.

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Ben-Shachar and a team from Stanford University – where Ben-Shachar, a professor at Bar Ilan University, conducted her post-doctoral research — used an MRI-based non-invasive technique called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to track the development of reading skills and white matter connections in 55 children ages seven to 12 over a three-year period, and how they change over time.

“The nice thing about DTI is that it is really child friendly,” said Ben-Shachar, who continues to collaborate with two Stanford labs in researching the development of reading in children born prematurely. “In a 12-minute scan you can collect high-quality data from the whole brain, while the child is lying still watching a movie.”

Counterintuitive findings

The National Institutes of Health-funded study was conducted between 2004 and 2007, and collected so much data that it took years to organize and analyze it.

The results were somewhat surprising. Children who became good readers initially had lower levels of white matter in the areas of the brain associated with reading, but these levels grew rapidly during the three-year test period.

However, children who became below-average readers started out with more white matter in the areas associated with reading, and these levels declined over time — suggesting that these children were not creating and strengthening the neural pathways key to reading ability.

Bar-Ilan’s Michal Ben-Shachar.
Bar-Ilan’s Michal Ben-Shachar.

“When we looked at the first year of collected data, in an article published last year in the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, it really struck us as so surprising to see a reverse correlation between white matter and reading ability,” Ben-Shachar tells ISRAEL21c. “This [new] paper helps us make sense of it, because we see the weaker readers start with stronger connections that decline over time.”

She speculates that this may be because during the first three years of life, children grow many brain connections and then start “pruning” ones they don’t use in order to strengthen the more relevant connections. “Perhaps there is not enough pruning in the brains of kids who become poor readers,” she suggests.

Sets the tone for future studies

Most developmental imaging studies compare brain measurements in groups of children and adults, while this one was unique in that it followed the same group of children over a long period of time.

“By doing so, we discovered that the changes in brain connections are more informative about reading skill than the measurement at a specific point in time,” says Ben-Shachar.

“This is really important if we are ever going to use MRI as a diagnostic tool in education, in addition to standard behavioral tools. It means we will have to assess the child more than once in order to look at dynamic developmental changes, because change is more important than absolute measures at a particular time point.”

At her Bar-Ilan lab, Ben-Shachar is working with Ethiopian immigrants for whom Hebrew is their first written language, in the hope of identifying how the adult brain changes as literacy is acquired.

Along with Ofer Amir and Ruth Ezrati from Tel Aviv University, Ben-Shachar recently won a prestigious grant from the Israel Science Foundation to study white matter pathways in the brains of adults who stutter.

Meanwhile, she goes to California each summer to participate in the ongoing child imaging studies at Stanford.

19 Ways to Step Back–Adapted from Classroom Collaboration, by Laurel J. Hudson, Ph.D. (Perkins School for the Blind)

It often feels right to give help to students with visual impairments, but this may not be in their best interest.  Use this list to help yourself to step back.

  1. You’re stepping back so your students can step forward and become independent.  Keep this in mind.                                                        
  2. Clock how long it actually takes for students to start zippers, pick up dropped papers, or find page numbers.  What’s a few more seconds in the grander scheme?                                                                                           
  3. Sit on your hands for a whole task while you practice giving verbal instead of touch cues.  Hands off the hands!
  4. If you need touch cues, try hand-under-hand instead of hand-over-hand.  This gives students much more choice.
  5. Let your students make mistakes and get into trouble.  It’s part of the human experience!     
  6. Acknowledge your own needs.  There’s a reason you chose the helping profession.
  7. Sit further away.  If you’ve been within arm’s reach, sit just within earshot.  If you’ve been sitting just within earshot, sit across the room                                          
  1. Pat yourself on the back every time you help with seeing, not thinking.  Your job is to give information.
  2. Even though helping can feel right, be aware that too much assistance is short-sighted.  Sometimes less is more, less is better.
  3. Catch yourself before you correct your students’ work.  Don’t cover for them.  This is about their skills… not yours.
  4. Commit to no intervention for a whole activity.  Take data instead.  Things might not fall apart as much as you had expected.
  5. “What page are we on?” “What’s for lunch?” Have students ask their classmates instead of you, both during school and on the telephone.
  6. Assign student learning partners and sighted guides.
  7. Teach students to decline assistance, “Thanks, but please let me try it by myself.”
  8. Whenever you add prompts, include a plan to phase them out.
  9. Let the boss know that you need to step back so that your students can be more independent.  You’re not shirking your responsibilities.
  10. Collaborate with other adults to break your habits of helping too much.  Agree to remind each other to step back.
  11. Try helping only when classroom teachers give you a signal.  They may prefer to respond directly or to give students longer to work it out alone.
  12. Post a sign, “Are there any other ways I could step back?”




The Chaffee Amendment in 1996 addressed the concerns of accessibility.  Below is an excerpt from http://www.loc.gov/nls/reference/factsheets/copyright.html.

(a) IN GENERAL–Chapter 1 of title 17, United States Code, is amended by adding after section 120 the following new section:
“SEC.121. Limitations on exclusive rights: reproduction for blind or other people with disabilities
“(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 710, it is not an infringement of copyright for an authorized entity to reproduce or to distribute copies or phonorecords of a previously published, nondramatic literary work if such copies or phonorecords are reproduced or distributed in specialized formats exclusively for use by blind or other persons with disabilities.
(1) Copies or phonorecords to which this section applies shall–
“(A) not be reproduced or distributed in a format other than a specialized format exclusively for use by blind or other persons with disabilities;
“(B) bear a notice that any further reproduction or distribution in a format other than a specialized format is an infringement; and
“(C) include a copyright notice identifying the copyright owner and the date of the original publication.
“(2) The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to standardized, secure, or norm-referenced tests and related testing material, or to computer programs, except the portions thereof that are in conventional human language (including descriptions of pictorial works) and displayed to users in the ordinary course of using the computer programs.
” (c) For purposes of this section, the term–
“(1) ‘authorized entity’ means a nonprofit organization or a governmental agency that has a primary mission to provide specialized services relating to training, education, or adaptive reading or information access needs of blind or other persons with disabilities;
“(2) ‘blind or other persons with disabilities’ means individuals who are eligible or who may qualify in accordance with the Act entitled ‘An Act to provide books for the adult blind’, approved March 3, 1931 (2 U.S.C. 35a; 46 Stat. 1487) to receive books and other publications produced in specialized formats; and
“(3) ‘specialized formats’ means braille, audio, or digital text which is exclusively for use by blind or other persons with disabilities.”.
(b) TECHNICAL AND CONFORMING AMENDMENT–The table of sections for chapter 1 of title 17, United States Code, is amended by adding after the item relating to section 120 the following:
“121. Limitations on exclusive rights: reproduction for blind or other people with disabilities.”.

The National Reading Media Assessment (NRMA) is live online and ready for  teachers in the field to use! This research-based, standardized assessment  tool determines whether each child who is assessed should be taught  Braille, print, or both. Thorough yet time-efficient, teachers can complete, save, and print assessments using this secure site.

To begin an  assessment or for more information, please visit  www.NFBNRMA.org http://www.nfbnrma.org/.  Contact us with your questions and comments on the feedback page at  www.NFBNRMA.org http://www.nfbnrma.org/, or by calling (410) 659-9314,

extension 2529.

For more information, contact:

Department of Education

the Jernigan Institute

National Federation of the Blind

Tel: (410) 659-9314 ext. 2529


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